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f:id:ttrd80:20210207162842p:plain

今回も動画から深掘りしていきましょう。

 

[所要時間 : 5分59秒]


How The Sweet Wine of Bordeaux Is Made

 

以下、ポイント / キーワードを拾っていきます。

 

Viticulture and wine making in Bordeaux dates back thousands of years to the Roman times

However, it wasn't until the 1600s that sweet wines became popular within the region

With the arrival of the Dutch in the early 17th century

demands shifted within Bordeaux

Moving away from lighter red wines towards more structured medium bodied Reds as well as sweet white wines

 

オランダの影響

・オランダ=正式な国名"ネーデルランド"=「低い土地」の意

→ 名物の「風車」は 実は干拓用 = 得技  → ボルドーの干拓・発展に寄与

(前回のラフィットの話とも繋がりますね。)

ハプスブルグ家※(オーストリア・ハンガリー付近)との繋がり

→貴腐の元祖ハンガリーから伝わった?

・ボルドーで貴腐ワイン造りがはじまる前から甘口の白オシ(以前はシロップみたいなのを混ぜてたかも...)

【動画】オランダの歴史をゆっくり解説【棒人間の世界史・国解説シリーズ】

【動画】【後編】オランダの歴史をゆっくり解説【棒人間の世界史・国解説シリーズ】

ボルドー、ワインの歴史 その8 (まとめ) | ろくでなしチャンのブログ

メドックの変遷1 地勢と干拓 | ろくでなしチャンのブログ

Sauternes Wine — History & Sweetness - Betty's Wine Musings

Noble rot - Wikipedia

(地図にすると↓の感じ)

f:id:ttrd80:20210207150348p:plain

 ※ハプスブルグ家はスペインとも繋がっていて、仏ジュラ地方のヴァン・ジョーヌ(黄ワイン)は同じ産膜酵母を使うシェリーが伝播したともいわれています。

 

Although Bordeaux today is still dominated by red grape varieties the areas of Sauternes

And Barsac are identified as being prime locations for white wine production and some of the world's greatest sweet wines are produced here

What grape series here? In our region we have three types of grapes

 

Semillon which is the prominent grape that originated in sit down probably around the 4th century

It brings a lot of nectars a lot of structure to the wine. Then you complement it with the

 

Sauvignon Blanc, which we consider a contributor of citrus characteristics

 

and the third grape that we have is Muscadelle

It's not prominent. It's very it's it's very thin-skinned grape

So it's very susceptible to disease and you need to have very good clay to have very good Muscadelle

 

So today most people have mostly Semillon

Complemented with a bitter Sauvignon Blanc and some places have a bit of Muscadelle

 

3種類のブドウ品種 - 役割

・セミヨン= 骨格として (主体となる品種)

・ソーヴィニョン・ブラン=シトラスのような爽やかさ (補助品種)

・ミュスカデル華やかさ (補助品種)

Muscadelle - Wikipedia

Google 翻訳

Muscadelle Wine - wine-searcher

※似た名前の「ミュスカデ」とは異なるので注意

 

These grapes are grown all around the world. However, very few places have the required climatic conditions to produce sweet wines of this style

not to be confused with fortified wines such as sherry or port the sweet wines of Sauterne and Barsac undergo a

Fascinating natural process known as noble rot

Instigated by a fungus called botrytis cinerea noble rot can only occur under highly precise conditions

 

・貴腐菌「ボトリティス・シネリア」の語源

Greek for “grapes,” and Latin for “cinder,” or ashes. ("ブドウの灰"菌って意味)

Sauternes Wine — History & Sweetness - Betty's Wine Musings

 

we are in a specific microclimate that encourages the proliferation of botrytis and

the

Microclimate alternates between these humid mornings and these dry sunny afternoons

that allows the evaporation of water and the concentration of sugar

 

So more technically botrytis attacks grapes and makes little holes in the skin

And in the afternoon the water is going to evaporate through these holes

and you're going to concentrate your sugar

 

Basically, we have a lot of Indian summers in this region

so this going back and forth between these misty humid mornings, and these sunny afternoons is a

Prerequisite to controlling the botrytis to evolve into what we call noble rot. So

 

貴腐ワインになるための気象条件

・湿気のある午前 & 乾燥した午後

→糖分が集中

→菌がブドウに穴をあける → (その穴から...)午後にブドウの水分が蒸発

・小春日和の穏やかな夏

≒風が少なく霧が滞留できる

 

Botrytis. What flavours is it going to give the wine?

So in addition to helping us concentrate the grape and also produce glycerol, which gives wines texture

 

Botrytis gives us aromas. It's very hard to explain the characteristics of these aromas

It's very personal some people associate it in a very young wine to some kind of

Grapefruit characteristic the zestiness. And older wines I think it's easier to spot it as a spicy characteristics

貴腐菌の働き

・ワインに骨格を与えるグリセロールを生成

独特のアロマをもたらす

 

Sauternes and Barsac now lead the way for high-end sweet wine production around the world

However, the history of this particular winemaking practice is somewhat contested

There's a lot of different stories that people tell about how we came to make sweet wine

There's the the great legend of a Chateau where the owner went hunting and told everybody

please wait till I get back

And then when he got back there was all this fungus and you know often they had the idea of making sweet wines

 

there's also the story of

the Dutch that were very present in Bordeaux because they were building the

drainage system up in the Merdoc and they had a love and

A knowledge of botrytis to them German area in Austria, so they brought that knowledge to Bordeaux

and helped us develop

The techniques to turn these botrytis grapes into sweet wines

So it's probably a little bit of both a happy accident

ボルドーの貴腐ワインの起源

領主が狩りから帰ってきたらブドウに菌が付いてたって伝説

or

オランダ人による伝播(前述)

ロスチャイルド家とワイン - Wikipedia

 

But also the right people at the right place with the knowledge to help us develop

Wine making in the appellation Sauternes in Barsac is often a huge challenge

because of the unique conditions required the noble rot to occur

Not enough moisture and the grapes will dry out before the onset of fungus

Too much moisture and the fungus will turn to gray rot

a negative result that effects any different parts destroying their fruit

Well, everything links back to botrytis and unfortunately but rises an anarchist, so it doesn't attack a bunch of berry all in one go

It's gonna start a little bit here a little bit there

And as a result, when we hand harvest we have to go and look at each bunch and pick the berries that are ready

So in a vineyard, you're going to go through in our in our case

I could say we go through six to eight times

during a period of six to eight weeks. Wow. each person looking at a vine and

Picking the fruit that's reached the right level of concentration.

栽培・収獲のタイミングを見極める難しさ

湿気が足りなくても、菌がつくまでに枯れる

湿気が多過ぎても、腐り過ぎる

 

So here you're in a first growth

So we're looking for twenty one - twenty two degrees of potential alcohol. So it's very concentrated fruit

We're picking those berry by berry

We're gonna put these in these little baskets, the baskets goes into a second selection process where someone from our team

Will go through and take anything out. That's not qualitative

 

And then the fruit goes into the cellar and we're gonna start pressing. That's so meticulous. It's a lot of work

I presume this is gonna impact the yield and then the final cost of the wine because that's a lot of

Work already just for a harvest

 

So in our region, we're making about one glass of wine per vine

Relatively speaking. If you're taking a red producer of the same quality you're making an entire bottle

Wow, that's a really really good comparison. So one vine will give me one glass. That's correct

It's a little to work for a glass of wine

It's passion its devotion. It's a lot of hard work all year long to ensure that the fruit is healthy at the time of harvest.

できあがるワインの量

1本のブドウの樹から...

貴腐ワイン → グラス1杯分しかできない!!

通常の赤ワイン → ボトル1本分

 

 

ミュスカデルを調べているとマデリゼーションって言葉を発見。ポルトガルのマデイラ酒よろしく "熱処理する" ってニュアンスなんだけど。そういやカンテイロとかエストゥーファって言葉がありますね

Maderisation - Wikipedia

 

 以上