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Red Winemaking in Bordeaux Explained

 

はっきり言ってポイントだらけでした。以下大事な箇所を赤字にして載せておきます。復習にお使い下さい。

 

【解説】

Bordeaux, one of the oldest winemaking regions in the world and the

Spiritual home of some of the world's most noble grapes such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon

 

although Bordeaux produces world-class white and sweet wines

90% of its production is its famed red wines

ボルドーといえばメルローカベルネソーヴィニョンなどのブレンドの赤

 

Unlike Burgundy where wines were usually be made from one variety of grape in Bordeaux The art of blending is a fundamental aspect of the winemaking process

ブルゴーニュが単一品種なのとは対照的。

 

in fact, wine making in Bordeaux has been developed over thousands of years the Red wine making process begins with harvesting. However, knowing exactly when to harvest is never an easy decision

How do you know when it's the right time to collect the grapes?

Starting journey So in on the right bank you harvest at the end of September beginning of October we start to do

analysis of the berries

収穫をいつするか?って話ですが...

 

mid-september

So we analyse the pH, the acidity, the weight of the berry all this

We do it on several weeks on every plot of the vineyard

We have four or five analysis

Once the acidity is low and the sugar is quite high

We also taste the berries because even if they analyse say it's ready to pick after

nothing is better than actually to taste and to see if

Especially the skin if it's too thick or not for us It's very exciting. But also

ブドウに含まれる酸(⇔糖度)や重さを分析してですが食べた味で決めるのも大切。

 

worrying because we want to harvest in very good condition when it's sunny like today and we always scared about the rain so

sometimes you will harvest a bit earlier because

After you will have one week of bad weather with lots of rain

We try as much as possible not to harvest when weather conditions are not good

そう、雨を避けるために早く収穫することも。。。

 

In Bordeaux harvesting can be done either by hand or by machine

However, the top Chateau will almost always hand harvest for their flagship wines. So in terms of how harvest can affect

Vintage do you cut by hand, do you use machines? How does the harvest process look here?

We do mechanical harvest and hand harvest I would say that generally on all vines because it's more fragile (フラジャイル = 壊れやすい)

We do it by hand and on younger vine we use mechanical harvest with optical tree

both of them are very

Collective now, it's more on the age of the plot of vineyard that we make the difference

看板ワイン = 手摘み ⇔ ブドウの樹が若い = 機械摘み

 

After harvest, grapes must be sorted to remove any unwanted berries. This process is usually done by hand

However recent advances in technology have introduced mechanical sorting that is incredibly accurate

選果の話ね。

 

What a sorting mean? How does that look? It means that you take the berries out of the Ruffle(ラッフル・ぐちゃぐちゃになったもの) and on mechanical harvest it's done with a machine and today we have a very precise optical Sorting let's take out the berries

It's new technology and mechanical harvest is not like 20 years ago today. It gives very good result

技術は進歩しているようで。

 

Once sorted, grapes will be ready to be transferred to vats usually made of stainless steel in

Bordeaux grapes will either be crushed to release their juice or placed in the vat as whole berries, we will always be disturbed first

So the grapes are harvested they're sorted and then what happens? When they are sorted they go into vats either

The berries are crushed

Before it goes into the vats or you put the berries and they are full we do both here both techniques

収穫→選果した後のブドウはいったん、タンクに入れるんだけど。。。

 

Now when the berries are not crushed before they go in you can find some difference into the wine

The wine will be more powerful more around because the fermentation two alcoholic fermentation

Is done more gently

潰さずに丸ごと入れてた方がよりたくましく&まろやかに。。。

 

Once in the vats the unfermented grape juice will begin a process of maceration

Extracting the colour, flavour and tannins from the grape, skins and pips

そう、醸し(=かもし)で大切なのはブドウの皮と種のタンニンを抽出するコトでしたね。

 

During maceration alcoholic fermentation occurs, either naturally or through the addition of selected yeasts to the vat

Alcoholic fermentation is the process of yeast consuming the grapes natural sugars. There are three natural byproducts of fermentation

ethanol or alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat

アルコール発酵とは、酵母糖分アルコールと二酸化炭素に分解する働き。

 

whilst in the vat

Winemakers may choose to increase the extraction of colour and tannins by either pumping over the must which is the fermenting juice or cap punching

pushing the grape skins down into the liquid

色と苦みを抽出するために、手で混ぜたり、機械でポンピングしたり。。。

 

Producers may leave fermented juice with the skins for three to four weeks

Even after alcoholic fermentation has finished to increase tannins and structure in their wines

しつこく皮と一緒に寝かしたり。。。

 

So someone asked you about tannins, for example

Where do they come from? The tannins come from the pips and the skin

タンニンから。

 

Okay after alcoholic fermentation

The existing juice is removed from the skins and the skins go through a pressing process to release any additional juice

 

After pressing, the wine is transferred to a new vessel, which may be stainless steel tanks

However for fine wines it will most commonly be transferred to new French oak barrels known as barrique

出来の良いワインはフレンチオークの新樽に入れる(→新樽の強い香味にも負けないから)。バリックって樽の名称・容量(225リットル)にも注目。⇔ ブルゴーニュはピエスで228リットル

 

 

Whilst the process of malolactic fermentation may have already occurred. It will normally take place once in the new vessel

during malolactic fermentation

Microorganisms(マイクロオーガニズムス = 微生物) naturally found in grape juice transformed tart malic(リンゴ酸) acid found in green apples into soft lactic acid(乳酸)

Which is found in milk this process softens the wine and helps to give it a smoother texture

マロラクティック発酵は(乳酸が)ワイン中のリンゴ酸乳酸に変える→ミルクやヨーグルトっぽいマロやかな味に。

 

 

The wine is then left to mature for 18 to 24 months during what is known as elevage

While maturing the wine will go through a racking process roughly every three months where it is transferred to different barrels to remove any remaining

sediment(セディメント = 沈殿物) in the wine and also provide controlled oxygenation

This step is critical to the development of flavours and aromas in a red wine

熟成では樽から樽に移し替えたりして、沈殿物を除去したり酸化のコントロールも。

 

 

In Bordeaux producers commonly used two hundred and twenty five litre French oak barrels for maturation

Tiny pores(ポアーズ孔:あな) in the would allow for micro oxygenation

softening the wine and creating a smoother final product

は小さな孔から空気を通して酸化をうながし、ワインの味をソフト・スムースに。

 

In Bordeaux, the art of blending is critical to the success of winemaking

Producers may choose to blend different grape varieties, parcels and styles of vinification

Before elevage, whilst others may do it at the end of elevage

Known as bench blending producers will identify different attributes of each barrel of wine to decide on what their final blend will be

This is an incredibly labour-intensive and intricate process and some wines in Bordeaux may be a blend of over 100 different wines

So speaking about the blending process how many samples of the blends do you make before you select

the final ones?

Depends

depends of the year, but

generally, it lasts three months and

Sometimes it's once a week

Sometimes it's twice a week and it's a time for arguing because you have always with commercial

against

the winemakers so we asked for another blind testing the following days or week and

To see how it evolved because there are ideas on the question. We have ours, you know, it's

complex and very tense

time

ブレンドのウンチクは流しましょう(笑)

 

 

Once blended the wine will still be cloudy. So a process of fining may be done to remove unwanted particles. Thus clarifying the wine

fining agents may be natural proteins which in Bordeaux has

Traditionally been egg whites though synthetic products can also be used most commonly in vegan wines

清澄卵白を使うって話。余った卵黄でお菓子のカヌレを作ったり。。。

 

the final step of the process is

Filtration and bottling with the wines being transferred from tank to bottle and the final cork being added

Bottles are then labeled and ready for sale

さらに濾過(ろか)・瓶詰め・コルク打ち。

 

The best red wines of Bordeaux are a masterful blend and no two years are the same

So wine makers must react to each vintages specific conditions

 

These basic steps to winemaking in Bordeaux will vary between producers depending on their philosophy and winemaking style

winemakers have to make a multitude of decisions along the way to capture the essence of the vintage and their

signature in each and every bottle

おつかれさまでした。

 

(↓画像はクリックしてリンク=拡大できます。)

https://venngage-wordpress-gallery.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/2016/08/How-is-Red-Wine-Made.png

https://venngage-wordpress-gallery.s3.amazonaws.com/uploads/2016/08/How-is-Red-Wine-Made.png

 

以上